Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/34737
Title: Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
Authors: Klionsky, Daniel J.
Abdalla, Fabio Camargo
Abeliovich, Hagai
Abraham, Robert T.
Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham
Adeli, Khosrow
Agholme, Lotta
Agnello, Maria
Agostinis, Patrizia
Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.
Ahn, Hyung Jun
Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia
Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane
Akematsu, Takahiko
Akira, Shizuo
Al-Younes, Hesham M.
Al-Zeer, Munir A.
Albert, Matthew L.
Albin, Roger L.
Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier
Aleo, Maria Francesca
Alirezaei, Mehrdad
Almasan, Alexandru
Almonte-Becerril, Maylin
Amano, Atsuo
Amaravadi, Ravi
Amarnath, Shoba
Amer, Amal O.
Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie
Anantharam, Vellareddy
Ann, David K.
Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra
Aoki, Hiroshi
Apostolova, Nadezda
Arancia, Giuseppe
Aris, John P.
Asanuma, Katsuhiko
Asare, Nana Y. O.
Ashida, Hisashi
Askanas, Valerie
Askew, David S.
Auberger, Patrick
Baba, Misuzu
Backues, Steven K.
Baehrecke, Eric H.
Bahr, Ben A.
Bai, Xue-Yuan
Bailly, Yannick
Baiocchi, Robert
Baldini, Giulia
Balduini, Walter
Ballabio, Andrea
Bamber, Bruce A.
Bampton, Edward T. W.
Banhegyi, Gabor
Bartholomew, Clinton R.
Bassham, Diane C.
Bast, Robert C.
Batoko, Henri
Bay, Boon-Huat
Beau, Isabelle
Bechet, Daniel M.
Begley, Thomas J.
Behl, Christian
Behrends, Christian
Bekri, Soumeya
Bellaire, Bryan
Bendall, Linda J.
Benetti, Luca
Berliocchi, Laura
Bernardi, Henri
Bernassola, Francesca
Besteiro, Sebastien
Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid
Bi, Xiaoning
Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine
Blum, Janice S.
Boise, Lawrence H.
Bonaldo, Paolo
Boone, David L.
Bornhauser, Beat C.
Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho [UNIFESP]
Bossis, Ioannis
Bost, Frederic
Bourquin, Jean-Pierre
Boya, Patricia
Boyer-Guittaut, Michael
Bozhkov, Peter V.
Brady, Nathan R.
Brancolini, Claudio
Brech, Andreas
Brenman, Jay E.
Brennand, Ana
Bresnick, Emery H.
Brest, Patrick
Bridges, Dave
Bristol, Molly L.
Brookes, Paul S.
Brown, Eric J.
Brumell, John H.
Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola
Brunk, Ulf T.
Bulman, Dennis E.
Bultman, Scott J.
Bultynck, Greet
Burbulla, Lena F.
Bursch, Wilfried
Butchar, Jonathan P.
Buzgariu, Wanda
Bydlowski, Sergio P.
Cadwell, Ken
Cahova, Monika
Cai, Dongsheng
Cai, Jiyang
Cai, Qian
Calabretta, Bruno
Calvo-Garrido, Javier
Camougrand, Nadine
Campanella, Michelangelo
Campos-Salinas, Jenny
Candi, Eleonora
Cao, Lizhi
Caplan, Allan B.
Carding, Simon R.
Cardoso, Sandra M.
Carew, Jennifer S.
Carlin, Cathleen R.
Carmignac, Virgine
Carneiro, Leticia A. M.
Carra, Serena
Caruso, Rosario A.
Casari, Giorgio
Casas, Caty
Castino, Roberta
Cebollero, Eduardo
Cecconi, Francesco
Celli, Jean
Chaachouay, Hassan
Chae, Han-Jung
Chai, Chee-Yin
Chan, David C.
Chan, Edmond Y.
Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung
Che, Chi-Ming
Chen, Ching-Chow
Chen, Guang-Chao
Chen, Guo-Qiang
Chen, Min
Chen, Quan
Chen, Steve S. -L.
Chen, WenLi
Chen, Xi
Chen, Xiangmei
Chen, Xiequn
Chen, Ye-Guang
Chen, Yingyu
Chen, Yongqiang
Chen, Yu-Jen
Chen, Zhixiang
Cheng, Alan
Cheng, Christopher H. K.
Cheng, Yan
Cheong, Heesun
Cheong, Jae-Ho
Cherry, Sara
Chess-Williams, Russ
Cheung, Zelda H.
Chevet, Eric
Chiang, Hui-Ling
Chiarelli, Roberto
Chiba, Tomoki
Chin, Lih-Shen
Chiou, Shih-Hwa
Chisari, Francis V.
Cho, Chi Hin
Cho, Dong-Hyung
Choi, Augustine M. K.
Choi, DooSeok
Choi, Kyeong Sook
Choi, Mary E.
Chouaib, Salem
Choubey, Divaker
Choubey, Vinay
Chu, Charleen T.
Chuang, Tsung-Hsien
Chueh, Sheau-Huei
Chun, Taehoon
Chwae, Yong-Joon
Chye, Mee-Len
Ciarcia, Roberto
Ciriolo, Maria R.
Clague, Michael J.
Clark, Robert S. B.
Clarke, Peter G. H.
Clarke, Robert
Codogno, Patrice
Coller, Hilary A.
Colombo, Maria I.
Comincini, Sergio
Condello, Maria
Condorelli, Fabrizio
Cookson, Mark R.
Coppens, Graham H. Coombs Isabelle
Corbalan, Ramon
Cossart, Pascale
Costelli, Paola
Costes, Safia
Coto-Montes, Ana
Couve, Eduardo
Coxon, Fraser P.
Cregg, James M.
Crespo, Jose L.
Cronje, Marianne J.
Cuervo, Ana Maria
Cullen, Joseph J.
Czaja, Mark J.
D'Amelio, Marcello
Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette
Davids, Lester M.
Davies, Faith E.
De Felici, Massimo
Groot, John F. de
Haan, Cornelis A. M. de
De Martino, Luisa
De Milito, Angelo
De Tata, Vincenzo
Debnath, Jayanta
Degterev, Alexei
Dehay, Benjamin
Delbridge, Lea M. D.
Demarchi, Francesca
Deng, Yi Zhen
Dengjel, Joen
Dent, Paul
Denton, Donna
Deretic, Vojo
Desai, Shyamal D.
Devenish, Rodney J.
Di Gioacchino, Mario
Di Paolo, Gilbert
Di Pietro, Chiara
Diaz-Araya, Guillermo
Diaz-Laviada, Ines
Diaz-Meco, Maria T.
Diaz-Nido, Javier
Dikic, Ivan
Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.
Ding, Wen-Xing
Distelhorst, Clark W.
Diwan, Abhinav
Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan
Dokudovskaya, Svetlana
Dong, Zheng
Dorsey, Frank C.
Dosenko, Victor
Dowling, James J.
Doxsey, Stephen
Dreux, Marlene
Drew, Mark E.
Duan, Qiuhong
Duchosal, Michel A.
Duff, Karen
Dugail, Isabelle
Durbeej, Madeleine
Duszenko, Michael
Edelstein, Charles L.
Edinger, Aimee L.
Egea, Gustavo
Eichinger, Ludwig
Eissa, N. Tony
Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan
El-Deiry, Wafik S.
Elazar, Zvulun
Elgendy, Mohamed
Ellerby, Lisa M.
Eng, Kai Er
Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart
Engelender, Simone
Erenpreisa, Jekaterina
Escalante, Ricardo
Esclatine, Audrey
Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa
Espert, Lucile
Espina, Virginia
Fan, Huizhou
Fan, Jia
Fan, Qi-Wen
Fan, Zhen
Fang, Shengyun
Fang, Yongqi
Fanto, Manolis
Fanzani, Alessandro
Farkas, Thomas
Farre, Jean-Claude
Faure, Mathias
Fechheimer, Marcus
Feng, Carl G.
Feng, Jian
Feng, Qili
Feng, Youji
Fesues, Laszlo
Feuer, Ralph
Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.
Fimia, Gian Maria
Fingar, Diane C.
Finkbeiner, Steven
Finkel, Toren
Finley, Kim D.
Fiorito, Filomena
Fisher, Edward A.
Fisher, Paul B.
Flajolet, Marc
Florez-McClure, Maria L.
Florio, Salvatore
Fon, Edward A.
Fornai, Francesco
Fortunato, Franco
Fotedar, Rati
Fowler, Daniel H.
Fox, Howard S.
Franco, Rodrigo
Frankel, Lisa B.
Fransen, Marc
Fuentes, Jose M.
Fueyo, Juan
Fujii, Jun
Fujisaki, Kozo
Fujita, Eriko
Fukuda, Mitsunori
Furukawa, Ruth H.
Gaestel, Matthias
Gailly, Philippe
Gajewska, Malgorzata
Galliot, Brigitte
Galy, Vincent
Ganesh, Subramaniam
Ganetzky, Barry
Ganley, Ian G.
Gao, Fen-Biao
Gao, George F.
Gao, Jinming
Garcia, Lorena
Garcia-Manero, Guillermo
Garcia-Marcos, Mikel
Garmyn, Marjan
Gartel, Andrei L.
Gatti, Evelina
Gautel, Mathias
Gawriluk, Thomas R.
Gegg, Matthew E.
Geng, Jiefei
Germain, Marc
Gestwicki, Jason E.
Gewirtz, David A.
Ghavami, Saeid
Ghosh, Pradipta
Giammarioli, Anna M.
Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N.
Gibson, Spencer B.
Gilkerson, Robert W.
Ginger, Michael L.
Ginsberg, Henry N.
Golab, Jakub
Goligorsky, Michael S.
Golstein, Pierre
Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria
Goncu, Ebru
Gongora, Celine
Gonzalez, Claudio D.
Gonzalez, Ramon
Gonzalez-Estevez, Cristina
Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa Ana
Gonzalez-Rey, Elena
Gorbunov, Nikolai V.
Gorski, Sharon
Goruppi, Sandro
Gottlieb, Roberta A.
Gozuacik, Devrim
Granato, Giovanna Elvira
Grant, Gary D.
Green, Kim N.
Gregorc, Ales
Gros, Frederic
Grose, Charles
Grunt, Thomas W.
Gual, Philippe
Guan, Jun-Lin
Guan, Kun-Liang
Guichard, Sylvie M.
Gukovskaya, Anna S.
Gukovsky, Ilya
Gunst, Jan
Gustafsson, Asa B.
Halayko, Andrew J.
Hale, Amber N.
Halonen, Sandra K.
Hamasaki, Maho
Han, Feng
Han, Ting
Hancock, Michael K.
Hansen, Malene
Harada, Hisashi
Harada, Masaru
Hardt, Stefan E.
Harper, J. Wade
Harris, Adrian L.
Harris, James
Harris, Steven D.
Hashimoto, Makoto
Haspel, Jeffrey A.
Hayashi, Shin-ichiro
Hazelhurst, Lori A.
He, Congcong
He, You-Wen
Hebert, Marie-Josee
Heidenreich, Kim A.
Helfrich, Miep H.
Helgason, Gudmundur V.
Henske, Elizabeth P.
Herman, Brian
Herman, Paul K.
Hetz, Claudio
Hilfiker, Sabine
Hill, Joseph A.
Hocking, Lynne J.
Hofman, Paul
Hofmann, Thomas G.
Hoehfeld, Joerg
Holyoake, Tessa L.
Hong, Ming-Huang
Hood, David A.
Hotamisligil, Goekhan S.
Houwerzijl, Ewout J.
Hoyer-Hansen, Maria
Hu, Bingren
Hu, Chien-An A.
Hu, Hong-Ming
Hua, Ya
Huang, Canhua
Huang, Ju
Huang, Shengbing
Huang, Wei-Pang
Huber, Tobias B.
Huh, Won-Ki
Hung, Tai-Ho
Hupp, Ted R.
Hur, Gang Min
Hurley, James B.
Hussain, Sabah N. A.
Hussey, Patrick J.
Hwang, Jung Jin
Hwang, Seungmin
Ichihara, Atsuhiro
Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin
Inoki, Ken
Into, Takeshi
Iovane, Valentine
Iovanna, Juan L.
Ip, Nancy Y.
Isaka, Yoshitaka
Ishida, Hiroyuki
Isidoro, Ciro
Isobe, Ken-ichi
Iwasaki, Akiko
Izquierdo, Marta
Izumi, Yotaro
Jaakkola, Panu M.
Jaattela, Marja
Jackson, George R.
Jackson, William T.
Janji, Bassam
Jendrach, Marina
Jeon, Ju-Hong
Jeung, Eui-Bae
Jiang, Hong
Jiang, Hongchi
Jiang, Jean X.
Jiang, Ming
Jiang, Qing
Jiang, Xuejun
Jimenez, Alberto
Jin, Meiyan
Jin, Shengkan
Joe, Cheol O.
Johansen, Terje
Johnson, Daniel E.
Johnson, Gail V. W.
Jones, Nicola L.
Joseph, Bertrand
Joseph, Suresh K.
Joubert, Annie M.
Juhasz, Gabor
Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne
Jung, Chang Hwa
Jung, Yong-Keun
Kaarniranta, Kai
Kaasik, Allen
Kabuta, Tomohiro
Kadowaki, Motoni
Kagedal, Katarina
Kamada, Yoshiaki
Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O.
Kampinga, Harm H.
Kanamori, Hiromitsu
Kang, Chanhee
Kang, Khong Bee
Kang, Kwang Il
Kang, Rui
Kang, Yoon-A
Kanki, Tomotake
Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi
Kanno, Haruo
Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.
Kanthasamy, Arthi
Karantza, Vassiliki
Kaushal, Gur P.
Kaushik, Susmita
Kawazoe, Yoshinori
Ke, Po-Yuan
Kehrl, John H.
Kelekar, Ameeta
Kerkhoff, Claus
Kessel, David H.
Khalil, Hany
Kiel, Jan A. K. W.
Kiger, Amy A.
Kihara, Akio
Kim, Deok Ryong
Kim, Do-Hyung
Kim, Dong-Hou
Kim, Eun-Kyoung
Kim, Hyung-Ryong
Kim, Jae-Sung
Kim, Jeong Hun
Kim, Jin Cheon
Kim, John K.
Kim, Peter K.
Kim, Seong Who
Kim, Yong-Sun
Kim, Yonghyun
Kimchi, Adi
Kimmelman, Alec C.
King, Jason S.
Kinsella, Timothy J.
Kirkin, Vladimir
Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A.
Kitamoto, Katsuhiko
Kitazato, Kaio
Klein, Ludger
Klimecki, Walter T.
Klucken, Jochen
Knecht, Erwin
Ko, Ben C. B.
Koch, Jan C.
Koga, Hiroshi
Koh, Jae-Young
Koh, Young Ho
Koike, Masato
Komatsu, Masaaki
Kominami, Eiki
Kong, Hee Jeong
Kong, Wei-Jia
Korolchuk, Viktor I.
Kotake, Yaichiro
Koukourakis, Michael I.
Flores, Juan B. Kouri
Kovacs, Attila L.
Kraft, Claudine
Krainc, Dimitri
Kraemer, Helmut
Kretz-Remy, Carole
Krichevsky, Anna M.
Kroemer, Guido
Krueger, Rejko
Krut, Oleg
Ktistakis, Nicholas T.
Kuan, Chia-Yi
Kucharczyk, Roza
Kumar, Ashok
Kumar, Raj
Kumar, Sharad
Kundu, Mondira
Kung, Hsing-Jien
Kurz, Tino
Kwon, Ho Jeong
La Spada, Albert R.
Lafont, Frank
Lamark, Trond
Landry, Jacques
Lane, Jon D.
Lapaquette, Pierre
Laporte, Jocelyn F.
Laszlo, Lajos
Lavandero, Sergio
Lavoie, Josee N.
Layfield, Robert
Lazo, Pedro A.
Le, Weidong
Le Cam, Laurent
Ledbetter, Daniel J.
Lee, Alvin J. X.
Lee, Byung-Wan
Lee, Gyun Min
Lee, Jongdae
Lee, Ju-Hyun
Lee, Michael
Lee, Myung-Shik
Lee, Sug Hyung
Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan
Legembre, Patrick
Legouis, Renaud
Lehmann, Michael
Lei, Huan-Yao
Lei, Qun-Ying
Leib, David A.
Leiro, Jose
Lemasters, John J.
Lemoine, Antoinette
Lesniak, Maciej S.
Lev, Dina
Levenson, Victor V.
Levine, Beth
Levy, Efrat
Li, Faqiang
Li, Jun-Lin
Li, Lian
Li, Sheng
Li, Weijie
Li, Xue-Jun
Li, Yan-bo
Li, Yi-Ping
Liang, Chengyu
Liang, Qiangrong
Liao, Yung-Feng
Liberski, Pawel P.
Lieberman, Andrew
Lim, Hyunjung J.
Lim, Kah-Leong
Lim, Kyu
Lin, Chiou-Feng
Lin, Fu-Cheng
Lin, Jian
Lin, Jiandie D.
Lin, Kui
Lin, Wan-Wan
Lin, Weei-Chin
Lin, Yi-Ling
Linden, Rafael
Lingor, Paul
Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer
Lisanti, Michael P.
Liton, Paloma B.
Liu, Bo
Liu, Chun-Feng
Liu, Kaiyu
Liu, Leyuan
Liu, Qiong A.
Liu, Wei
Liu, Young-Chau
Liu, Yule
Lockshin, Richard A.
Lok, Chun-Nam
Lonial, Sagar
Loos, Benjamin
Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel
Lopez-Otin, Carlos
Lossi, Laura
Lotze, Michael T.
Low, Peter
Lu, Binfeng
Lu, Bingwei
Lu, Bo
Lu, Zhen
Luciano, Frederic
Lukacs, Nicholas W.
Lund, Anders H.
Lynch-Day, Melinda A.
Ma, Yong
Macian, Fernando
MacKeigan, Jeff P.
Macleod, Kay F.
Madeo, Frank
Maiuri, Luigi
Maiuri, Maria Chiara
Malagoli, Davide
Malicdan, May Christine V.
Malorni, Walter
Man, Na
Mandelkow, Eva-Maria
Manon, Stephen
Manov, Irena
Mao, Kai
Mao, Xiang
Mao, Zixu
Marambaud, Philippe
Marazziti, Daniela
Marcel, Yves L.
Marchbank, Katie
Marchetti, Piero
Marciniak, Stefan J.
Marcondes, Mateus
Mardi, Mohsen
Marfe, Gabriella
Marino, Guillermo
Markaki, Maria
Marten, Mark R.
Martin, Seamus J.
Martinand-Mari, Camille
Martinet, Wim
Martinez-Vicente, Marta
Masini, Matilde
Matarrese, Paola
Matsuo, Saburo
Matteoni, Raffaele
Mayer, Andreas
Mazure, Nathalie M.
McConkey, David J.
McConnell, Melanie J.
McDermott, Catherine
McDonald, Christine
McInerney, Gerald M.
McKenna, Sharon L.
McLaughlin, BethAnn
McLean, Pamela J.
McMaster, Christopher R.
McQuibban, G. Angus
Meijer, Alfred J.
Meisler, Miriam H.
Melendez, Alicia
Melia, Thomas J.
Melino, Gerry
Mena, Maria A.
Menendez, Javier A.
Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.
Menon, Manoj B.
Menzies, Fiona M.
Mercer, Carol A.
Merighi, Adalberto
Merry, Diane E.
Meschini, Stefania
Meyer, Christian G.
Meyer, Thomas F.
Miao, Chao-Yu
Miao, Jun-Ying
Michels, Paul A. M.
Michiels, Carine
Mijaljica, Dalibor
Milojkovic, Ana
Minucci, Saverio
Miracco, Clelia
Miranti, Cindy K.
Mitroulis, Ioannis
Miyazawa, Keisuke
Mizushima, Noboru
Mograbi, Baharia
Mohseni, Simin
Molero, Xavier
Mollereau, Bertrand
Mollinedo, Faustino
Momoi, Takashi
Monastyrska, Iryna
Monick, Martha M.
Monteiro, Mervyn J.
Moore, Michael N.
Mora, Rodrigo
Moreau, Kevin
Moreira, Paula I.
Moriyasu, Yuji
Moscat, Jorge
Mostowy, Serge
Mottram, Jeremy C.
Motyl, Tomasz
Moussa, Charbel E. -H.
Mueller, Sylke
Muenger, Karl
Muenz, Christian
Murphy, Leon O.
Murphy, Maureen E.
Musaro, Antonio
Mysorekar, Indira
Nagata, Eiichiro
Nagata, Kazuhiro
Nahimana, Aimable
Nair, Usha
Nakagawa, Toshiyuki
Nakahira, Kiichi
Nakano, Hiroyasu
Nakataogawa, Hitoshi
Nanjundan, Meera
Naqvi, Naweed I.
Narendra, Derek P.
Narita, Masashi
Navarro, Miguel
Nawrocki, Steffan T.
Nazarko, Taras Y.
Nemchenko, Andriy
Netea, Mihai G.
Neufeld, Thomas P.
Ney, Paul A.
Nezis, Ioannis P.
Huu Phuc Nguyen
Nie, Daotai
Nishino, Ichizo
Nislow, Corey
Nixon, Ralph A.
Noda, Takeshi
Noegel, Angelika A.
Nogalska, Anna
Noguchi, Satoru
Notterpek, Lucia
Novak, Ivana
Nozaki, Tomoyoshi
Nukina, Nobuyuki
Nuernberger, Thorsten
Nyfeler, Beat
Obara, Keisuke
Oberley, Terry D.
Oddo, Salvatore
Ogawa, Michinaga
Ohashi, Toya
Okamoto, Koji
Oleinick, Nancy L.
Oliver, F. Javier
Olsen, Laura J.
Olsson, Stefan
Opota, Onya
Osborne, Timothy F.
Ostrander, Gary K.
Otsu, Kinya
Ou, Jing-hsiung James
Ouimet, Mireille
Overholtzer, Michael
Ozpolat, Bulent
Paganetti, Paolo
Pagnini, Ugo
Pallet, Nicolas
Palmer, Glen E.
Palumbo, Camilla
Pan, Tianhong
Panaretakis, Theocharis
Pandey, Udai Bhan
Papackova, Zuzana
Papassideri, Issidora
Paris, Irmgard
Park, Junsoo
Park, Ohkmae K.
Parys, Jan B.
Parzych, Katherine R.
Patschan, Susann
Patterson, Cam
Pattingre, Sophie
Pawelek, John M.
Peng, Jianxin
Perlmutter, David H.
Perrotta, Ida
Perry, George
Pervaiz, Shazib
Peter, Matthias
Peters, Godefridus J.
Petersen, Morten
Petrovski, Goran
Phang, James M.
Piacentini, Mauro
Pierre, Philippe
Pierrefite-Carle, Valerie
Pierron, Gerard
Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit
Piras, Antonio
Piri, Natik
Platanias, Leonidas C.
Poeggeler, Stefanie
Poirot, Marc
Poletti, Angelo
Poues, Christian
Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes
Praetorius-Ibba, Mette
Prasad, Anil
Prescott, Mark
Priault, Muriel
Produit-Zengaffinen, Nathalie
Progulske-Fox, Ann
Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula
Przedborski, Serge
Przyklenk, Karin
Puertollano, Rosa
Puyal, Julien
Qian, Shu-Bing
Qin, Liang
Qin, Zheng-Hong
Quaggin, Susan E.
Raben, Nina
Rabinowich, Hannah
Rabkin, Simon W.
Rahman, Irfan
Rami, Abdelhaq
Ramm, Georg
Randall, Glenn
Randow, Felix
Rao, V. Ashutosh
Rathmell, Jeffrey C.
Ravikumar, Brinda
Ray, Swapan K.
Reed, Bruce H.
Reed, John C.
Reggiori, Fulvio
Regnier-Vigouroux, Anne
Reichert, Andreas S.
Reiners, John J.
Reiter, Russel J.
Ren, Jun
Revuelta, Jose L.
Rhodes, Christopher J.
Ritis, Konstantinos
Rizzo, Elizete
Robbins, Jeffrey
Roberge, Michel
Roca, Hernan
Roccheri, Maria C.
Rocchi, Stephane
Rodemann, H. Peter
Cordoba, Santiago Rodriguez de
Rohrer, Baerbel
Roninson, Igor B.
Rosen, Kirill
Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M.
Rouis, Mustapha
Rouschop, Kasper M. A.
Rovetta, Francesca
Rubin, Brian P.
Rubinsztein, David C.
Ruckdeschel, Klaus
Rucker, Edmund B.
Rudich, Assaf
Rudolf, Emil
Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson
Russo, Rossella
Rusten, Tor Erik
Ryan, Kevin M.
Ryter, Stefan W.
Sabatini, David M.
Sadoshima, Junichi
Saha, Tapas
Saitoh, Tatsuya
Sakagami, Hiroshi
Sakai, Yasuyoshi
Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini
Salomoni, Paolo
Salvaterra, Paul M.
Salvesen, Guy
Salvioli, Rosa
Sanchez, Anthony M. J.
Sanchez-Alcazar, Jose A.
Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo
Sandri, Marco
Sankar, Uma
Sansanwal, Poonam
Santambrogio, Laura
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Keywords: autolysosome
autophagosome
flux
LC3
lysosome
phagophore
stress
vacuole
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2012
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc
Citation: Autophagy. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis Inc, v. 8, n. 4, p. 445-544, 2012.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). in other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. in fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. in addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. in these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
URI: http://repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/34737
ISSN: 1554-8627
Other Identifiers: http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.19496
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