Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

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dc.contributor.author Murray, Christopher J. L.
dc.contributor.author Vos, Theo
dc.contributor.author Lozano, Rafael
dc.contributor.author Naghavi, Mohsen
dc.contributor.author Flaxman, Abraham D.
dc.contributor.author Michaud, Catherine
dc.contributor.author Ezzati, Majid
dc.contributor.author Shibuya, Kenji
dc.contributor.author Salomon, Joshua A.
dc.contributor.author Abdalla, Safa
dc.contributor.author Aboyans, Victor
dc.contributor.author Abraham, Jerry
dc.contributor.author Ackerman, Ilana
dc.contributor.author Aggarwal, Rakesh
dc.contributor.author Ahn, Stephanie Y.
dc.contributor.author Ali, Mohammed K.
dc.contributor.author Alvarado, Miriam
dc.contributor.author Anderson, H. Ross
dc.contributor.author Anderson, Laurie M.
dc.contributor.author Andrews, Kathryn G.
dc.contributor.author Atkinson, Charles
dc.contributor.author Baddour, Larry M.
dc.contributor.author Bahalim, Adil N.
dc.contributor.author Barker-Collo, Suzanne
dc.contributor.author Barrero, Lope H.
dc.contributor.author Bartels, David H.
dc.contributor.author Basanez, Maria-Gloria
dc.contributor.author Baxter, Amanda
dc.contributor.author Bell, Michelle L.
dc.contributor.author Benjamin, Emelia J.
dc.contributor.author Bennett, Derrick
dc.contributor.author Bernabe, Eduardo
dc.contributor.author Bhalla, Kavi
dc.contributor.author Bhandari, Bishal
dc.contributor.author Bikbov, Boris
dc.contributor.author Bin Abdulhak, Aref
dc.contributor.author Birbeck, Gretchen
dc.contributor.author Black, James A.
dc.contributor.author Blencowe, Hannah
dc.contributor.author Blore, Jed D.
dc.contributor.author Blyth, Fiona
dc.contributor.author Bolliger, Ian
dc.contributor.author Bonaventure, Audrey
dc.contributor.author Boufous, Soufi Ane
dc.contributor.author Bourne, Rupert
dc.contributor.author Boussinesq, Michel
dc.contributor.author Braithwaite, Tasanee
dc.contributor.author Brayne, Carol
dc.contributor.author Bridgett, Lisa
dc.contributor.author Brooker, Simon
dc.contributor.author Brooks, Peter
dc.contributor.author Brugha, Traolach S.
dc.contributor.author Bryan-Hancock, Claire
dc.contributor.author Bucello, Chiara
dc.contributor.author Buchbinder, Rachelle
dc.contributor.author Buckle, Geoffrey
dc.contributor.author Budke, Christine M.
dc.contributor.author Burch, Michael
dc.contributor.author Burney, Peter
dc.contributor.author Burstein, Roy
dc.contributor.author Calabria, Bianca
dc.contributor.author Campbell, Benjamin
dc.contributor.author Canter, Charles E.
dc.contributor.author Carabin, Helene
dc.contributor.author Carapetis, Jonathan
dc.contributor.author Carmona, Loreto
dc.contributor.author Cella, Claudia
dc.contributor.author Charlson, Fiona
dc.contributor.author Chen, Honglei
dc.contributor.author Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann
dc.contributor.author Chou, David
dc.contributor.author Chugh, Sumeet S.
dc.contributor.author Coffeng, Luc E.
dc.contributor.author Colan, Steven D.
dc.contributor.author Colquhoun, Samantha
dc.contributor.author Colson, K. Ellicott
dc.contributor.author Condon, John
dc.contributor.author Connor, Myles D.
dc.contributor.author Cooper, Leslie T.
dc.contributor.author Corriere, Matthew
dc.contributor.author Cortinovis, Monica
dc.contributor.author De Vaccaro, Karen Courville
dc.contributor.author Couser, William
dc.contributor.author Cowie, Benjamin C.
dc.contributor.author Criqui, Michael H.
dc.contributor.author Cross, Marita
dc.contributor.author Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C.
dc.contributor.author Dahiya, Manu
dc.contributor.author Dahodwala, Nabila
dc.contributor.author Damsere-Derry, James
dc.contributor.author Danaei, Goodarz
dc.contributor.author Davis, Adrian
dc.contributor.author De Leo, Diego
dc.contributor.author Degenhardt, Louisa
dc.contributor.author Dellavalle, Robert
dc.contributor.author Delossantos, Allyne
dc.contributor.author Denenberg, Julie
dc.contributor.author Derrett, Sarah
dc.contributor.author Des Jarlais, Don C.
dc.contributor.author Dharmaratne, Samath D.
dc.contributor.author Dherani, Mukesh
dc.contributor.author Diaz-Torne, Cesar
dc.contributor.author Dolk, Helen
dc.contributor.author Dorsey, E. Ray
dc.contributor.author Driscoll, Tim
dc.contributor.author Duber, Herbert
dc.contributor.author Ebel, Beth
dc.contributor.author Edmond, Karen
dc.contributor.author Elbaz, Alexis
dc.contributor.author Ali, Suad Eltahir
dc.contributor.author Erskine, Holly
dc.contributor.author Erwin, Patricia J.
dc.contributor.author Espindola, Patricia
dc.contributor.author Ewoigbokhan, Stalin E.
dc.contributor.author Farzadfar, Farshad
dc.contributor.author Feigin, Valery
dc.contributor.author Felson, David T.
dc.contributor.author Ferrari, Alize
dc.contributor.author Ferri, Cleusa P.
dc.contributor.author Fevre, Eric M.
dc.contributor.author Finucane, Mariel M.
dc.contributor.author Flaxman, Seth
dc.contributor.author Flood, Louise
dc.contributor.author Foreman, Kyle
dc.contributor.author Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
dc.contributor.author Fowkes, Francis Gerry R.
dc.contributor.author Fransen, Marlene
dc.contributor.author Freeman, Michael K.
dc.contributor.author Gabbe, Belinda J.
dc.contributor.author Gabriel, Sherine E.
dc.contributor.author Gakidou, Emmanuela
dc.contributor.author Ganatra, Hammad A.
dc.contributor.author Garcia, Bianca
dc.contributor.author Gaspari, Flavio
dc.contributor.author Gillum, Richard F.
dc.contributor.author Gmel, Gerhard
dc.contributor.author Gonzalez-Medina, Diego
dc.contributor.author Gosselin, Richard
dc.contributor.author Grainger, Rebecca
dc.contributor.author Grant, Bridget
dc.contributor.author Groeger, Justina
dc.contributor.author Guillemin, Francis
dc.contributor.author Gunnell, David
dc.contributor.author Gupta, Ramyani
dc.contributor.author Haagsma, Juanita
dc.contributor.author Hagan, Holly
dc.contributor.author Halasa, Yara A.
dc.contributor.author Hall, Wayne
dc.contributor.author Haring, Diana
dc.contributor.author Maria Haro, Josep
dc.contributor.author Harrison, James E.
dc.contributor.author Havmoeller, Rasmus
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dc.contributor.author Higashi, Hideki
dc.contributor.author Hill, Catherine
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dc.contributor.author Hotez, Peter J.
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dc.contributor.author Woolf, Anthony D.
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dc.contributor.author Yeh, Pon-Hsiu
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dc.date.accessioned 2018-06-18T10:54:46Z
dc.date.available 2018-06-18T10:54:46Z
dc.date.issued 2012-12-15
dc.identifier http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4
dc.identifier.citation Lancet. New York: Elsevier Science Inc, v. 380, n. 9859, p. 2197-2223, 2012.
dc.identifier.issn 0140-6736
dc.identifier.uri http://repositorio.unifesp.br/11600/44837
dc.description.abstract Background Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.Methods We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights.Findings Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2.503 billion) to 2010 (2.490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions.Interpretation Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results. en
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dc.description.sponsorship Australian Government
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dc.description.sponsorship South African Medical Research Council Burden of Disease Research Unit
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dc.description.sponsorship Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
dc.description.sponsorship Biostatistics, Epidemiologic and Bioinformatic Training in Environmental Health Training Grant
dc.description.sponsorship Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education
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dc.description.sponsorship Burke Global Health Fellowship
dc.description.sponsorship Harold Amos Medical Faculty Development Award of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
dc.description.sponsorship Vanderbilt Clinical and Translational Scholars Award
dc.description.sponsorship Spanish Society of Rheumatology (Sociedad Espanola de Reumatologia)
dc.description.sponsorship European Center for Injury Prevention, Universidad de Navarra
dc.description.sponsorship Department of Health and Ageing
dc.description.sponsorship Commonwealth Government of Australia
dc.description.sponsorship Institute of Bone and Joint Research (IBJR)
dc.description.sponsorship University of Sydney (USYD)
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dc.format.extent 2197-2223
dc.language.iso eng
dc.publisher Elsevier B.V.
dc.relation.ispartof Lancet
dc.rights Acesso restrito
dc.title Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 en
dc.type Artigo
dc.rights.license http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-policies/article-posting-policy
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dc.contributor.institution Hosp Maciel
dc.contributor.institution Emerald Publ Hlth Consulting Serv Ltd
dc.contributor.institution Univ Tehran Med Sci
dc.contributor.institution Auckland Tech Univ
dc.contributor.institution Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
dc.contributor.institution Carnegie Mellon Univ
dc.contributor.institution James Cook Univ
dc.contributor.institution Howard Univ
dc.contributor.institution Addict Info Switzerland
dc.contributor.institution Univ Calif San Francisco
dc.contributor.institution Suny Downstate Med Ctr
dc.contributor.institution Ctr Dis Control & Prevent
dc.contributor.institution Univ Lorraine
dc.contributor.institution Univ Bristol
dc.contributor.institution NYU
dc.contributor.institution Brandeis Univ
dc.contributor.institution Univ Barcelona
dc.contributor.institution Karolinska Univ Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Queen Elizabeth Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Univ Franche Comte
dc.contributor.institution Ctr Hosp Reg Univ Besancon
dc.contributor.institution NIDCD
dc.contributor.institution NIDDK
dc.contributor.institution Baylor Coll Med
dc.contributor.institution Univ Port Harcourt
dc.contributor.institution George Mason Univ
dc.contributor.institution Heidelberg Univ
dc.contributor.institution All India Inst Med Sci
dc.contributor.institution Hebrew Univ Jerusalem
dc.contributor.institution Case Western Reserve Univ
dc.contributor.institution Makerere Univ
dc.contributor.institution Univ S Africa
dc.contributor.institution Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol
dc.contributor.institution Univ Tasmania
dc.contributor.institution Nova SE Univ
dc.contributor.institution Minist Hlth
dc.contributor.institution Univ Miami
dc.contributor.institution Swansea Univ
dc.contributor.institution Mulago Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Asian Pacific Soc Cardiol
dc.contributor.institution Univ Cape Town
dc.contributor.institution Legacy Hlth Syst
dc.contributor.institution Northwestern Univ
dc.contributor.institution Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente
dc.contributor.institution Thomas Jefferson Univ
dc.contributor.institution Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat
dc.contributor.institution Natl Inst Hlth
dc.contributor.institution Univ Eduardo Mondlane
dc.contributor.institution Duke Univ
dc.contributor.institution IRCCS Burlo Garofolo
dc.contributor.institution Columbia Univ
dc.contributor.institution Queensland Univ Technol
dc.contributor.institution Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev
dc.contributor.institution Watford Dist Gen Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Kemri Wellcome Trust
dc.contributor.institution Univ KwaZulu Natal
dc.contributor.institution Ctr Studi GISED
dc.contributor.institution Charite
dc.contributor.institution Natl Univ Ireland Galway
dc.contributor.institution Deakin Univ
dc.contributor.institution BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci
dc.contributor.institution Betty Cowan Res & Innovat Ctr
dc.contributor.institution Hosp Joan 23
dc.contributor.institution Univ Calgary
dc.contributor.institution Inst Nacl Enfermedades Resp
dc.contributor.institution Hosp Univ Cruces
dc.contributor.institution Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ
dc.contributor.institution Brigham Young Univ
dc.contributor.institution Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth
dc.contributor.institution Hosp Univ Canarias
dc.contributor.institution Univ British Columbia
dc.contributor.institution Vector Control Res Ctr
dc.contributor.institution Ctr Dis Anal
dc.contributor.institution Univ Calif Berkeley
dc.contributor.institution Univ Chicago
dc.contributor.institution Complejo Hosp Caja Seguro Social
dc.contributor.institution Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Ctr
dc.contributor.institution Vanderbilt Univ
dc.contributor.institution Univ Alabama Birmingham
dc.contributor.institution Minist Interior
dc.contributor.institution Hlth Canada
dc.contributor.institution Queens Med Ctr
dc.contributor.institution Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol
dc.contributor.institution Aga Khan Univ
dc.contributor.institution Drexel Univ
dc.contributor.institution Univ Alberta
dc.contributor.institution Cincinnati Childrens Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Copenhagen Univ Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Univ Crete
dc.contributor.institution ANLIS
dc.contributor.institution KNCV TB Fdn
dc.contributor.institution Maastricht Univ
dc.contributor.institution Natl Univ Singapore
dc.contributor.institution Capital Med Univ
dc.contributor.institution Brown Univ
dc.contributor.institution Royal Childrens Hosp
dc.contributor.institution Murdoch Childrens Res Inst
dc.contributor.institution Univ Nottingham
dc.contributor.institution Hollywood Orthopaed Grp
dc.contributor.institution Arthrit Res
dc.contributor.institution Royal Cornwall Hosp
dc.contributor.institution London Sch Econ
dc.contributor.institution Landstuhl Reg Med Ctr
dc.description.affiliation Univ Queensland, Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Queensland, Sch Populat Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Queensland, Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Washington, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98121 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Washington, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA 98121 USA
dc.description.affiliation China Med Board, Boston, MA USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC HPA Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England
dc.description.affiliation Univ Tokyo, Dept Global Hlth Policy, Tokyo, Japan
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Harvard Humanitarian Initiat, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Boston Childrens Hosp, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Harvard Univ, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA
dc.description.affiliation Dupuytren Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Limoges, France
dc.description.affiliation Univ Texas San Antonio, San Antonio, TX USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Melbourne, Ctr Int Child Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Melbourne, Dept Pediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Melbourne, Ctr Hlth Policy Programs & Econ, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Melbourne, Sch Populat Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
dc.description.affiliation Emory Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Atlanta, GA USA
dc.description.affiliation Emory Univ, Sch Med, Atlanta, GA USA
dc.description.affiliation St Georges Univ London, London, England
dc.description.affiliation Mayo Clin, Rochester, MN USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand
dc.description.affiliation Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia
dc.description.affiliation Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA
dc.description.affiliation Boston Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Oxford, Clin Trial Serv Unit, Oxford, England
dc.description.affiliation Univ Oxford, Epidemiol Studies Unit, Oxford, England
dc.description.affiliation Kings Coll London, Inst Dent, London WC2R 2LS, England
dc.description.affiliation Kings Coll London, Hosp NHS Trust, London WC2R 2LS, England
dc.description.affiliation Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, London WC2R 2LS, England
dc.description.affiliation Queen Mary Univ London, Inst Dent, London, England
dc.description.affiliation Moscow State Univ Med & Dent, Res Inst Transplantol & Artificial Organs, Moscow, Russia
dc.description.affiliation King Fahad Med City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
dc.description.affiliation Michigan State Univ, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA
dc.description.affiliation MRC, Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England
dc.description.affiliation London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London WC1, England
dc.description.affiliation Univ Sydney, No Clin Sch, Dept Rheumatol, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Sydney, Fac Hlth Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Sydney, Inst Bone & Joint Res, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Sydney, Sydney Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
dc.description.affiliation INSERM, Paris, France
dc.description.affiliation Univ New S Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ New S Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Anglia Ruskin Univ, Vis & Eye Res Unit, Cambridge, England
dc.description.affiliation Moorfields Eye Hosp, London, England
dc.description.affiliation Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England
dc.description.affiliation Univ Leicester, Leicester, Leics, England
dc.description.affiliation Flinders Univ S Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Cabrini Inst, Malvern, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Johns Hopkins Univ, Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA
dc.description.affiliation Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX USA
dc.description.affiliation Great Ormond St Hosp Sick Children, London WC1N 3JH, England
dc.description.affiliation Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Oklahoma, Hlth Sci Ctr, Oklahoma City, OK USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Western Australia, Telethon Inst Child Hlth Res, Ctr Child Hlth Res, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Camilo Jose Cela, Villanueva De La Canada, Spain
dc.description.affiliation Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, I-24100 Bergamo, Italy
dc.description.affiliation NIEHS, Res Triangle Pk, NC 27709 USA
dc.description.affiliation Acad Sinica, Inst Biomed Sci, Taipei, Taiwan
dc.description.affiliation Cedars Sinai Med Ctr, Inst Heart, Los Angeles, CA 90048 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands
dc.description.affiliation Menzies Sch Hlth Res, Darwin, NT, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Natl Hlth Serv, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
dc.description.affiliation Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
dc.description.affiliation Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
dc.description.affiliation Loyola Univ, Sch Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA
dc.description.affiliation Wake Forest Univ, Sch Publ Hlth Sci, Winston Salem, NC 27109 USA
dc.description.affiliation Hosp Dr Gustavo N Collado, Puerto Chitre, Panama
dc.description.affiliation Victorian Infect Dis Reference Lab, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Calif San Diego, San Diego, CA 92103 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Penn, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
dc.description.affiliation Bldg & Rd Res Inst, Kumasi, Ghana
dc.description.affiliation MRC Hearing & Commun Grp, Manchester, Lancs, England
dc.description.affiliation Griffith Univ, Sch Dent & Oral Hlth, Brisbane, Qld 4111, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Griffith Univ, Populat & Social Hlth Res Program, Brisbane, Qld 4111, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Denver VA Med Ctr, Denver, VA USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
dc.description.affiliation Beth Israel Deaconess Med Ctr, New York, NY 10003 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka
dc.description.affiliation Univ Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England
dc.description.affiliation Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
dc.description.affiliation Univ Ulster, Ulster, Ireland
dc.description.affiliation Fed Minist Hlth, Khartoum, Sudan
dc.description.affiliation Hosp Maciel, Montevideo, Uruguay
dc.description.affiliation Emerald Publ Hlth Consulting Serv Ltd, Abuja, Nigeria
dc.description.affiliation Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran
dc.description.affiliation Auckland Tech Univ, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand
dc.description.affiliation Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil
dc.description.affiliation Carnegie Mellon Univ, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA
dc.description.affiliation James Cook Univ, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Howard Univ, Coll Med, Washington, DC USA
dc.description.affiliation Addict Info Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland
dc.description.affiliation Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA
dc.description.affiliation Suny Downstate Med Ctr, Coll Med, Brooklyn, NY 11203 USA
dc.description.affiliation Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Natl Ctr Injury Prevent & Control, Atlanta, GA USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Lorraine, Nancy, France
dc.description.affiliation Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England
dc.description.affiliation NYU, New York, NY USA
dc.description.affiliation Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain
dc.description.affiliation Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden
dc.description.affiliation Queen Elizabeth Hosp, Adelaide, SA, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Franche Comte, F-25030 Besancon, France
dc.description.affiliation Ctr Hosp Reg Univ Besancon, Besancon, France
dc.description.affiliation NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA
dc.description.affiliation NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA
dc.description.affiliation Baylor Coll Med, Natl Sch Trop Med, Waco, TX USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
dc.description.affiliation George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA
dc.description.affiliation Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Heidelberg, Germany
dc.description.affiliation All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India
dc.description.affiliation Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Hadassah Med Sch, Dept Cardiol, IL-91010 Jerusalem, Israel
dc.description.affiliation Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
dc.description.affiliation Makerere Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Kampala, Uganda
dc.description.affiliation Univ S Africa, Johannesburg, South Africa
dc.description.affiliation Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol, Kumasi, Ghana
dc.description.affiliation Univ Tasmania, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Nova SE Univ, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA
dc.description.affiliation Minist Hlth, Jerusalem, Israel
dc.description.affiliation Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Miami, FL 33136 USA
dc.description.affiliation Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales
dc.description.affiliation Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda
dc.description.affiliation Asian Pacific Soc Cardiol, Kyoto, Japan
dc.description.affiliation MRC, Tygerberg, South Africa
dc.description.affiliation Univ Cape Town, Hatter Inst, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa
dc.description.affiliation Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa
dc.description.affiliation Legacy Hlth Syst, Portland, OR USA
dc.description.affiliation Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Evanston, IL USA
dc.description.affiliation Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente, Mexico City, DF, Mexico
dc.description.affiliation Thomas Jefferson Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA
dc.description.affiliation Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA
dc.description.affiliation Natl Inst Hlth, Maputo, Mozambique
dc.description.affiliation Univ Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique
dc.description.affiliation Duke Univ, Durham, NC USA
dc.description.affiliation IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy
dc.description.affiliation Columbia Univ, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, New York, NY USA
dc.description.affiliation Queensland Univ Technol, Brisbane, Qld 4001, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan
dc.description.affiliation Watford Dist Gen Hosp, Watford, England
dc.description.affiliation Kemri Wellcome Trust, Kilifi, Kenya
dc.description.affiliation Univ KwaZulu Natal, AVRI, Durban, South Africa
dc.description.affiliation Ctr Studi GISED, Bergamo, Italy
dc.description.affiliation Charite, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
dc.description.affiliation Natl Univ Ireland Galway, HRB Clin Res Facil, Galway, Ireland
dc.description.affiliation Deakin Univ, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal
dc.description.affiliation Betty Cowan Res & Innovat Ctr, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
dc.description.affiliation Hosp Joan 23, La Paz, Bolivia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
dc.description.affiliation Inst Nacl Enfermedades Resp, Mexico City, DF, Mexico
dc.description.affiliation Hosp Univ Cruces, Baracaldo, Spain
dc.description.affiliation Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai Mental Hlth Ctr, Sch Med, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
dc.description.affiliation Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China
dc.description.affiliation Brigham Young Univ, Provo, UT 84602 USA
dc.description.affiliation Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada
dc.description.affiliation Hosp Univ Canarias, Tenerif, Spain
dc.description.affiliation Univ British Columbia, Fac Med, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada
dc.description.affiliation Vector Control Res Ctr, Pondicherry, India
dc.description.affiliation Ctr Dis Anal, Louisville, CO USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Chicago, NORC, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
dc.description.affiliation Complejo Hosp Caja Seguro Social, Panama City, Panama
dc.description.affiliation Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Ctr, Ctr Alcohol Policy Res, Fitzroy, SA, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA
dc.description.affiliation Minist Interior, Madrid, Spain
dc.description.affiliation Hlth Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0L2, Canada
dc.description.affiliation Queens Med Ctr, Honolulu, HI USA
dc.description.affiliation Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway
dc.description.affiliation Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan
dc.description.affiliation Drexel Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
dc.description.affiliation Univ Alberta, Alberta Kidney Dis Network, Edmonton, AB, Canada
dc.description.affiliation Cincinnati Childrens Hosp, Cincinnati, OH USA
dc.description.affiliation Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Herlev, Denmark
dc.description.affiliation Univ Crete, Sch Med, Iraklion, Greece
dc.description.affiliation ANLIS, Inst Nacl Epidemiol, Malbran, Argentina
dc.description.affiliation KNCV TB Fdn, The Hague, Netherlands
dc.description.affiliation Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Maastricht, Netherlands
dc.description.affiliation Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore 117548, Singapore
dc.description.affiliation Capital Med Univ, Beijing Neurosurg Inst, Beijing, Peoples R China
dc.description.affiliation Brown Univ, Providence, RI 02912 USA
dc.description.affiliation Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Univ Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England
dc.description.affiliation Hollywood Orthopaed Grp, Perth, WA, Australia
dc.description.affiliation Arthrit Res, Wichita, KS USA
dc.description.affiliation Royal Cornwall Hosp, Truro, England
dc.description.affiliation London Sch Econ, London WC2A 2AE, England
dc.description.affiliation Landstuhl Reg Med Ctr, Landstuhl, Germany
dc.description.affiliationUnifesp Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sch Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil
dc.description.sponsorshipID Wellcome Trust: 098045
dc.description.sponsorshipID Wellcome Trust: 085308
dc.description.sponsorshipID NIH: K23 AG034236
dc.description.sponsorshipID Swedish Research Council: 2011-1071
dc.description.sponsorshipID Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare: H13-SHOGAI-023
dc.description.sponsorshipID Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare: H14-TOKUBETSU-026
dc.description.sponsorshipID Japan Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare: H16-KOKORO-013
dc.description.sponsorshipID Biostatistics, Epidemiologic and Bioinformatic Training in Environmental Health Training Grant: ES015459
dc.description.sponsorshipID National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: ES00260
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4
dc.description.source Web of Science
dc.identifier.wos WOS:000312387000016



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